- Introduction ::TuvaluBackground:In 1974, ethnic differences within the British colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands caused the Polynesians of the Ellice Islands to vote for separation from the Micronesians of the Gilbert Islands. The following year, the Ellice Islands became the separate British colony of Tuvalu. Independence was granted in 1978. In 2000, Tuvalu negotiated a contract leasing its Internet domain name "".tv"" for $50 million in royalties over a 12-year period.Geography ::TuvaluLocation:Oceania, island group consisting of nine coral atolls in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to AustraliaGeographic coordinates:8 00 S, 178 00 EArea:total: 26 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 238land: 26 sq kmwater: 0 sq kmArea - comparative:0.1 times the size of Washington, DCLand boundaries:0 kmCoastline:24 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)Terrain:low-lying and narrow coral atollsElevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 mhighest point: unnamed location 5 mNatural resources:fishLand use:arable land: 0%permanent crops: 60%other: 40% (2011)Irrigated land:NANatural hazards:severe tropical storms are usually rare, but in 1997 there were three cyclones; low levels of islands make them sensitive to changes in sea levelEnvironment - current issues:since there are no streams or rivers and groundwater is not potable, most water needs must be met by catchment systems with storage facilities (the Japanese Government has built one desalination plant and plans to build one other); beachhead erosion because of the use of sand for building materials; excessive clearance of forest undergrowth for use as fuel; damage to coral reefs from the spread of the Crown of Thorns starfish; Tuvalu is concerned about global increases in greenhouse gas emissions and their effect on rising sea levels, which threaten the country's underground water table; in 2000, the government appealed to Australia and New Zealand to take in Tuvaluans if rising sea levels should make evacuation necessaryEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:one of the smallest and most remote countries on Earth; six of the nine coral atolls - Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae - have lagoons open to the ocean; Nanumaya and Niutao have landlocked lagoons; Niulakita does not have a lagoonPeople and Society ::TuvaluNationality:noun: Tuvaluan(s)adjective: TuvaluanEthnic groups:Polynesian 96%, Micronesian 4%Languages:Tuvaluan (official), English (official), Samoan, Kiribati (on the island of Nui)Religions:Protestant 98.4% (Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%), Baha'i 1%, other 0.6%Population:10,698 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 224Age structure:0-14 years: 29.8% (male 1,637/female 1,555)15-24 years: 20.9% (male 1,197/female 1,044)25-54 years: 35.8% (male 1,846/female 1,985)55-64 years: 8.1% (male 352/female 514)65 years and over: 5.3% (male 238/female 330) (2013 est.)Median age:total: 24.6 yearsmale: 23.4 yearsfemale: 26.3 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.77% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 138Birth rate:23.56 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 71Death rate:8.97 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 67Net migration rate:-6.92 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 199Urbanization:urban population: 50% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 1.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.17 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.91 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.71 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 32.61 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 67male: 35.45 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 29.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 65.47 yearscountry comparison to the world: 171male: 63.36 yearsfemale: 67.67 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:3.06 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Contraceptive prevalence rate:30.5% (2007)Health expenditures:17.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 3Physicians density:0.64 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:5.56 beds/1,000 population (2001)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 98% of populationrural: 97% of populationtotal: 98% of populationunimproved:urban: 2% of populationrural: 3% of populationtotal: 2% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 88% of populationrural: 81% of populationtotal: 85% of populationunimproved:urban: 12% of populationrural: 19% of populationtotal: 15% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:NAHIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:NAHIV/AIDS - deaths:NAChildren under the age of 5 years underweight:1.6% (2007)country comparison to the world: 123Education expenditures:NALiteracy:NASchool life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 11 yearsmale: 10 yearsfemale: 11 years (2001)Government ::TuvaluCountry name:conventional long form: noneconventional short form: Tuvalulocal long form: nonelocal short form: Tuvaluformer: Ellice Islandsnote: ""Tuvalu"" means ""group of eight"" referring to the country's eight traditionally inhabited islandsGovernment type:parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realmCapital:name: Funafutigeographic coordinates: 8 31 S, 179 13 Etime difference: UTC+12 (17 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)note: administrative offices are in Vaiaku Village on Fongafale IsletAdministrative divisions:7 island councils and 1 town council*; Funafuti*, Nanumaga, Nanumea, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, VaitupuIndependence:1 October 1978 (from the UK)National holiday:Independence Day, 1 October (1978)Constitution:1 October 1978Legal system:mixed legal system of English common law and local customary lawInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCtSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Iakoba TAEIA Italeli (since May 2010)head of government: Prime Minister Enele SOPOAGA (since 5 August 2013)cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of parliament following parliamentary electionselection results: Willie TELAVI removed as prime minister by the governor-general on 1 August 2013; Enele SOPOAGA elected 4 August 2013 in a 8 to 5 vote by the House of AssemblyLegislative branch:unicameral Parliament or Fale I Fono, also called House of Assembly (15 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 16 September 2010 (next to be held in 2014)election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 15; 10 members reelectedJudicial branch:highest court(s): Court of Appeal is the Fiji Court of Appeal on Fiji Island (consists of the chief justice who visits twice a year); High Court, located on Fiji, consists of the chief justice of Fiji who presides over its sessionsjudge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president of Fiji on the advice of the prime minister following consultation with the parliamentary leader of the opposition; justices of the Court of Appeal, and puisne judges of the High Court are appointed by the president of Fiji, upon the nomination of the Judicial Service Commission, after consulting with the Cabinet Minister and the committee of the House of Representatives responsible for the administration of justice; the chief justice and justices of Appeal generally required to retire at age 70; puisine judges appointed for not less than 4 years nor more than 7 years with mandatory retirement at age 65subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; island courts; lands courtsPolitical parties and leaders:there are no political parties but members of parliament usually align themselves in informal groupingsPolitical pressure groups and leaders:noneInternational organization participation:ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, IBRD, IDA, IFRCS (observer), ILO, IMF, IMO, IOC, ITU, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHODiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Aunese Makoi SIMATIchancery: Note - Tuvalu does not have an embassy in Washington, D.C.; UN office located at 800 2nd Avenue, Suite 400D, New York, NY 10017telephone:  (212) 490-0534FAX:  (212) 937-0692Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Tuvalu; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to TuvaluFlag description:light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow, five-pointed stars on a blue field symbolizing the nine atolls in the oceanNational anthem:name: ""Tuvalu mo te Atua"" (Tuvalu for the Almighty)lyrics/music: Afaese MANOAnote: adopted 1978; the anthem's name is also the nation's mottoEconomy ::TuvaluEconomy - overview:Tuvalu consists of a densely populated, scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil. Only eight of the atolls are inhabited. The country has no known mineral resources and few exports and is almost entirely dependent upon imported food and fuel. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. Fewer than 1,000 tourists, on average, visit Tuvalu annually. Job opportunities are scarce and public sector workers make up most of those employed. About 15% of the adult male population work as seamen on merchant ships abroad, and remittances are a vital source of income contributing around $2 million in 2007. Substantial income is received annually from the Tuvalu Trust Fund (TTF) an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, NZ, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea. Thanks to wise investments and conservative withdrawals, this fund grew from an initial $17 million to an estimated value of $77 million in 2006. The TTF contributed nearly $9 million towards the government budget in 2006 and is an important cushion for meeting shortfalls in the government's budget. The US Government is also a major revenue source for Tuvalu because of payments from a 1988 treaty on fisheries. In an effort to ensure financial stability and sustainability, the government is pursuing public sector reforms, including privatization of some government functions and personnel cuts. Tuvalu also derives royalties from the lease of its "".tv"" Internet domain name with revenue of more than $2 million in 2006. A minor source of government revenue comes from the sale of stamps and coins. With merchandise exports only a fraction of merchandise imports, continued reliance must be placed on fishing and telecommunications license fees, remittances from overseas workers, official transfers, and income from overseas investments. Growing income disparities and the vulnerability of the country to climatic change are among leading concerns for the nation.GDP (purchasing power parity):$37.61 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 226$37.25 million (2011 est.)$36.98 million (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$37 million (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:1.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1571.1% (2011 est.)-2.9% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$3,400 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 173$3,400 (2011 est.)$3,300 (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 16.6%industry: 27.2%services: 56.2% (2002)Agriculture - products:coconuts; fishIndustries:fishing, tourism, copraIndustrial production growth rate:NA%Labor force:3,615 (2004 est.)country comparison to the world: 224Labor force - by occupation:note: people make a living mainly through exploitation of the sea, reefs, and atolls and from wages sent home by those abroad (mostly workers in the phosphate industry and sailors)Unemployment rate:NA%Population below poverty line:NA%Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%highest 10%: NA%Budget:revenues: $21.54 millionexpenditures: $23.05 million (2006)Taxes and other revenues:58.2% of GDP (2006)country comparison to the world: 7Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-4.1% of GDP (2006)country comparison to the world: 147Fiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):3.8% (2006 est.)country comparison to the world: 119Current account balance:-$7.7 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 59-$11.68 million (2003)Exports:$600,000 (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 218$1 million (2004 est.)Exports - commodities:copra, fishImports:$16.5 million (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 221$12.91 million (2005)Imports - commodities:food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goodsDebt - external:$NAExchange rates:Tuvaluan dollars or Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -0.9658 (2011)1.67 (2011 est.)1.67 (2010)1.2822 (2009)1.2059 (2008)Communications ::TuvaluTelephones - main lines in use:1,400 (2011)country comparison to the world: 219Telephones - mobile cellular:2,100 (2011)country comparison to the world: 216Telephone system:general assessment: serves particular needs for internal communicationsdomestic: radiotelephone communications between islandsinternational: country code - 688; international calls can be made by satellite (2007)Broadcast media:no TV stations; many households use satellite dishes to watch foreign TV stations; 1 government-owned radio station, Radio Tuvalu, includes relays of programming from international broadcasters (2009)Internet country code:.tvInternet hosts:145,158 (2012)country comparison to the world: 80Internet users:4,200 (2008)country comparison to the world: 206Transportation ::TuvaluAirports:1 (2013)country comparison to the world: 235Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 11,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)Roadways:total: 8 kmcountry comparison to the world: 222paved: 8 km (2002)Merchant marine:total: 58country comparison to the world: 67by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 24, chemical tanker 15, container 1, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1foreign-owned: 33 (China 4, Indonesia 1, Maldives 1, Singapore 19, South Korea 1, Turkey 1, Vietnam 6) (2010)Ports and terminals:FunafutiMilitary ::TuvaluMilitary branches:no regular military forces; Tuvalu Police Force (2012)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 2,021females age 16-49: 2,026 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 119female: 111 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:NATransnational Issues ::TuvaluDisputes - international:none"
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Tuvalu — Tuvalu … Deutsch Wikipedia
Tuvalu — es una isla nación. Conjunto de nueve atolones coralinos habitados por polinesios en el Océano Pacífico. Después del Vaticano es la nación independiente con menor número de habitantes. Debido a su baja elevación (máximo de 5 metros), las islas… … Enciclopedia Universal
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Tuvalu — er et land i Oceanien. Se artiklen: Tuvalu … Danske encyklopædi
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Tuvalu — Tùvalu m DEFINICIJA geogr. otočna država u Z dijelu Tihog oceana (Polinezija), 24 km2, 9300 stan., glavni grad Fongafale … Hrvatski jezični portal
Tuvalu — [to͞o΄və lo͞o′, to͞o vä′lo͞o] country consisting of a group of nine islands in the WC Pacific: a British protectorate since 1892, it became independent & a member of the Commonwealth (1978): 10 sq mi (26 sq km); pop. 10,000; cap. Fongafale … English World dictionary
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